According to different uses and structures, lathes are mainly divided into horizontal lathes and floor lathes, vertical bai lathes, turret lathes, single-spindle automatic lathes, multi-spindle automatic and semi-automatic lathes, profiling lathes and multi-tool lathes, and various specialized Chemical lathes, such as camshaft lathes, crankshaft lathes, wheel lathes, shovel-tooth lathes. Among all lathes, horizontal lathes are the most widely used. The horizontal lathe processing dimension tolerance grade can reach IT8～IT7, the surface roughness Ra value can reach 1.6μm. In recent years, computer technology has been widely used in the machine tool manufacturing industry, followed by the emergence of mechatronics products such as CNC lathes and turning machining centers.
1. Ordinary lathe: wide range of processing objects, wide adjustment range of spindle speed and feed rate, capable of processing the internal and external surfaces, end faces and internal and external threads of the workpiece. This kind of lathe is mainly operated manually by workers, with low production efficiency, and is suitable for single-piece, small-batch production and repair workshops.
2. Turret lathe and rotary lathe: It has a turret or revolving tool holder that can hold multiple tools. Workers can use different tools to complete a variety of processes in one clamping of the workpiece. It is suitable for mass production. .
3. Automatic lathe: Automatically complete the multi-process processing of small and medium-sized workpieces according to a certain program, can automatically load and unload, and repeatedly process a batch of the same workpiece, which is suitable for mass production.
4. Multi-tool semi-automatic lathe: There are single-axis, multi-axis, horizontal and vertical. The single-axis horizontal layout is similar to that of ordinary lathes, but the two sets of tool holders are installed on the front and back or up and down of the main spindle to process discs, rings and shafts. The productivity is 3 to 5 times higher than that of ordinary lathes.
5. Copying lathe: It can imitate the shape and size of the model or sample, and automatically complete the processing cycle of the workpiece (see the copying machine). It is suitable for small batch and batch production of more complicated workpieces. The productivity is 10 higher than ordinary lathes. ~ 15 times. There are multi-tool holder, multi-axis, chuck type, vertical type, etc.
6. Vertical lathe: The spindle is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is clamped on a horizontal rotary table, and the tool post moves on the beam or column. It is suitable for processing large and heavy workpieces that are difficult to install on ordinary lathes. It is divided into two categories: single column and double column.
7. Shovel tooth lathe: While turning, the tool post periodically reciprocates radially, which is used for forming tooth surfaces of forklift milling cutters and hobs. Usually with a relief grinding attachment, a small grinding wheel driven by a separate electric motor relieving the tooth surface.
8. Specialized lathes: lathes that process specific surfaces of certain types of workpieces, such as crankshaft lathes, camshaft lathes, wheel lathes, axle lathes, roll lathes, and ingot lathes.
9. Combined lathe: mainly used for turning processing, but with some special parts and accessories, it can also be used for boring, milling, drilling, inserting, grinding and other processing. It has the characteristics of "one machine with multiple functions" and is suitable for engineering vehicles and ships Or repair work on a mobile repair station.
10. Numerical control lathe: Numerical control machine tool is a kind of mechatronics processing equipment that controls the machine tool to perform automatic processing according to a given trajectory through digital information. After half a century of development, CNC machine tool has become an important part of modern manufacturing. One of the signs is that in the Chinese manufacturing industry, the application of CNC machine tools is becoming more and more extensive, which is a manifestation of an enterprise's comprehensive strength. CNC lathe is the abbreviation of digital program control lathe. It combines the characteristics of a universal lathe with good versatility, a precision lathe with high machining accuracy and a special lathe with high machining efficiency. It is the largest in domestic use and the widest coverage. A CNC machine tool.
11. Saddle lathe: The bed at the left end of the saddle lathe at the headbox is sunken and can accommodate parts with large diameters. The shape of the lathe is high at both ends and low in the middle, resembling a saddle, so it is called a saddle lathe. The saddle lathe is suitable for machining parts with large radial size and small axial size. It is suitable for turning the outer circle, inner hole, end face, grooving and metric, inch, modulus, warp thread of the workpiece, and also for drilling and boring. , Reaming and other processes, especially suitable for single-piece and batch production enterprises. The saddle lathe can process larger diameter workpieces in the saddle groove. The machine tool guide is hardened and finely ground, which is convenient and reliable to operate. The lathe has the characteristics of high power, high speed, strong rigidity, high precision and low noise.