A lathe is a machine that mainly uses a turning tool to turn a rotating workpiece. Lathes, reamers, reamers, taps, dies and knurling tools can also be used for machining on lathes. Lathes are mainly used to machine shafts, discs, sleeves and other workpieces with rotating surfaces. They are the most widely used type of machine tool in mechanical manufacturing and repair factories.
1.1 The "bow lathe" of ancient pulleys and arched rods. As early as in ancient Egypt, people have invented the technology of turning a piece of wood with a cutter while rotating wood about its central axis. At first, people used two standing timbers as scaffolds to set up the wood to be turned, rolled the ropes onto the wood using the elasticity of the branches, pulled the rope by hand or by hand to turn the timber, and cut it with the tool.
This ancient method gradually evolved into two or three turns of rope around a pulley. The rope was hung on a bow-shaped elastic rod. The bow was pulled back and forth to rotate the object to be turned. This is the "bow lathe".
1.2 In the Middle Ages, the “periodic lathe” of medieval crankshafts and flywheels was introduced to the Middle Ages. It was designed a “bicycle lathe” that used a foot pedal to rotate the crankshaft and to drive the flywheel, and then transmitted it to the main shaft for rotation. In the middle of the 16th century, a French designer named Besson designed a lathe for screwing a tool with a screw-screw. Unfortunately, this type of lathe was not promoted.
1.3 In the eighteenth century, when the bedside box and chuck were born in the 18th century, another person designed a rotating bed with a pedal and a connecting rod to store the rotating kinetic energy on a flywheel and rotate the workpiece directly. Developed into the rotating headstock, the headstock is a chuck for holding the workpiece.
1.4 The Englishman Mosley invented the lathe lathe (1797) in the story of the invention of the lathe, most notably the Englishman named Mosley because he invented the epoch-making lathe lathe in 1797. This lathe has a precision lead screw and interchangeable gears.
Mozley was born in 1771. At the age of 18, he was the inventor Brammer's right-hand man. It is said that Brammer had been working as a farmer before, but at the age of 16, he had to be disabled due to an accident and he had to be diverted to a less mobile woodworking job. His first invention was a flush toilet in 1778. Mozley began to help Brammer design hydraulic presses and other machinery until he was 26 years old. He left Brammer because Brammer had violently rejected what Moritz proposed. Wages increase to 30 shillings per week or more.
In the year when Mosley left Brammer, he made the first threading lathe. This is an all-metal lathe with tool holders and tailstocks that can move along two parallel rails. The guide surface of the guide rail is triangular and drives the screw rod to move the tool holder laterally when the main shaft rotates. This is the main mechanism that modern lathes have, and can use this lathe to make precision metal screws of any pitch.
Three years later, Mozley built a more complete lathe in his own workshop. The gears on the top can be replaced with each other, changing the feed rate and the pitch of the thread being machined. In 1817, another Englishman, Roberts, used a four-stage pulley and back wheel mechanism to change the spindle speed. Soon, larger lathes came out and made great contributions to the invention of steam engines and other machinery.
1.5 The birth of various specialized lathes In order to increase the degree of automation in mechanization, in 1845, Fitch of the United States invented the turret lathe; in 1848, the United States again appeared the turning wheel lathe; in 1873, Spencer of the United States made a single axis automatic Lathe, and soon he made a three-axis automatic lathe; at the beginning of the 20th century, there was a lathe with a gearbox driven by a separate motor. Due to the invention of high-speed tool steel and the application of electric motors, the lathes have been continuously improved and finally reached a modern level of high speed and high precision.
After World War I, various high-efficiency automatic lathes and specialized lathes developed rapidly due to the needs of arms, automobiles and other machinery industries. In order to improve the productivity of small batches of workpieces, lathes with hydraulic profiling devices were promoted at the end of the 40's. At the same time, multi-tool lathes have also been developed. In the mid-1950s, program control lathes with punched cards, latch plates and dials were developed. CNC technology began to be used in lathes in the 1960s and developed rapidly after the 1970s.